Grande, skinny, light foam,latte, cappuccino, frappaccino, mocha. These are names of beverages that have crept into the English language recently as various coffee-based drinks have brought a high degree of choice to consumers in all walks of life. As these choices have expanded, Navy officers and enlisted personnel have become more sophisticated in their beverage choices. This still-growing range of coffee choices in the U.S. Navy has evolved slowly over more than two centuries, as commercial coffee makers and purveyors developed imaginative techniques that today whet the thirst of men and women throughout the world. When men first went to sea thousands of years ago, their solid food and beverage needs were major concerns. In earliest recorded time, ships rarely sailed beyond sight of land, where they could easily put in to shore to obtain food and water. Later, as ships became larger and voyages longer and more hazardous, crews were sustained with substantial stores of food containers and jugs of water, requiring development of procedures for stowing, issuing and consuming them. Sanitary conditions at sea affected liquids and other foods aboard ship, leading to boiling water or adding alcohol to make it palatable. Before coffee came into use, water was supplemented by mead, a drink of fermented honey and water, flavored with fruit or spices. The meager rations were carefully doled out during each voyage. Inevitable onboard shortages on long cruises frequently became major issues among the crews, leading to occasional refusals to participate in manning their stations and even mutinies. Exhausted supplies of liquids far at sea could be replenished solely by capturing rainwater in sails, buckets or whatever else was at hand. The Old Testament indicates that wine was a popular beverage in biblical times. Archaeologists have uncovered ancient hieroglyphics describing how to brew beer and have located jugs that were used for containing beer more than 5,000 years ago. Although there is strong evidence that a strong alcoholic beverage was originally distilled from sugarcane in ancient Asia, it was not until the 15th century that Europeans learned to convert sugarcane readily into a thick, sweet liquor that became known as rum. Rum was quickly adopted by Great Britain's Royal Navy. The fledgling American Continental Navy was modeled along the lines of the RN and, early in 1794, the Continental Congress enacted into law that a daily ration for American sailors would be "one half pint of distilled spirits," or in lieu thereof, "one quart of beer." Royal Navy officials soon noticed that allowing enlisted ratings to drink straight rum hampered their performance at sea and endangered the safety of their ships. The Admiralty solved this problem by specifying that rum be diluted with water, creating a beverage called grog, which satisfied Sailors' need for a more thirst-quenching drink than water alone. Influenced by their English heritage, some American Sailors preferred drinking tea. Both coffee and tea could easily be brewed aboard ships. As a result of King George III's instituting a tax on tea and retaliation by colonists in the famous Boston Tea Party in 1773, the Continental Congress declared coffee the national drink of the colonies and aboard U.S. Navy ships. American Sailors promptly switched from tea to coffee. Preserving coffee beans proved to be a daunting task aboard Navy ships and in warehouses ashore. Wormholes in the beans roused considerable concern because of the unknown effect upon the final brewed product from the holes and the insects that caused them. Paymaster F.T. Arms addressed this concern in the Navy Cook Book, published in 1902, which he authored and distributed. Arms wrote, "The presence of wormholes in coffee should not occasion its rejection unless it is of inferior quality and strength, since they (the wormholes) generally indicate age, weigh nothing, and disappear when the coffee is ground." Coffee was served primarily for its satisfying taste and warming characteristics, but necessity sometimes fostered other innovative uses. In the spring of 1914, the Navy flotilla of destroyers was sen to Tampico on the Caribbean coast of Mexico where Marines were landed to secure release of arrested American seaman. The skipper of one destroyer, realizing that some of his Sailors, who would accompany the Marines, had only blues and whites in their sea bags to wear ashore in the semitropical climate, turned to his officers for suggestions. One unknown destroyer paymaster resolved the problem of providing more comfortable tropical uniforms by dipping white uniforms into pots of coffee, which effectively transformed them into khakis. A future flag officer and chief of Supply Corps, then a yeoman, third class (later VADM), Charles W. Fox, reported that there was "absolutely no comfort in wearing a uniform soaked from having been dipped in a pot of coffee dregs." Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, scandalized by reports of drunkenness aboard ship, issued an order 1919 banned the serving of wine in the wardroom and any consumption of alcoholic aboardship. Daniels, a teetotaler, decreed that only coffee or tea should be served. This was not a popular order and Sailors promptly dubbed a cup of coffee as a "cup of joe." Popularity of coffee continued to increase during the period between two world wars as supply officers strove to assure that coffee of suitable quality was available in sufficient quantity to sate the thirst of officers and Sailors afloat and ashore. The importance of coffee to officers and Sailors was driven home on 7 December 1941, when supply officers of undamaged or lightly damaged combatant ships following the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor prepared to board supplies for immediate deployment no later than early the next morning. CAPT (later RADM) John J. Gaffney, senior Supply Corps officer assigned to the Navy Yard Pearl Harbor, issued a series of emergency orders to his staff. Among officers he dispatched into action was LTJG J. B. Andrade, SC, USNR, one of five Naval Reservists already serving on two weeks active duty in CAPT Gaffney's Supply Department. He instructed Andrade to drive into Honolulu to make emergency purchase of five tons of the popular Kona coffee for issue to fleet units preparing to put to sea. The young officer was unable to obtain the entire five tons as hastily opened wholesale firms turned over their entire Kona coffee inventory to him. Anticipating that it might not be possible for LTJG Andrade to purchase the full five tons, Gaffney had authorized substitution of commercial brands. Andrade purchased and delivered five tons of Kona and other acceptable coffee by late evening that day. As America went on a full wartime footing, soldiers were issued instant coffee in their ration kits. Back at home, shortages of coffee eventually led to rationing. One frequent World War II saying boasted that Navy ships operated on fuel oil and their crews operated on coffee. Many Sailors were convinced that U.S. Navy combatant ships in World War II had more unofficial "coffee messes" (or coffee pots) in place than crewmen aboard - about 2,000 in battleships. Most of these unauthorized "messes" consisted of a single electric coffeemaker plugged into the nearest electrical outlet in crew quarters, offices, workshops and sometimes even at battle stations. The number of individual messes and the frequent need to substitute lesser-known brands of coffee were among several factors that raised questions about the quality of Navy coffee, particularly in the fleet. U.S. Navy officials, motivated by the belief that coffee is as important to personnel in the fleet as ammunition is to its weapons systems, were concerned early during wartime expansion in 1942 over the widely varying quality of the roasted coffee being supplied to ships and shore stations. The solution was to open Navy fresh coffee roasting plants on both the East and West coasts and later in Hawaii.