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Topic: coffee and coronary risk (2 msgs / 1363 lines)
1) From: Dean De Crisce
I had sent this out as an attachment when this was being discussed.
Attachments aren't allowed on the list. So, I am
putting the info here as a long email. Dean De Crisce
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab
Care.2007
Nov;10(6):745-51.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease.*
*Cornelis MC*,
*El-Sohemy A*
.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in
current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine
consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and
genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS:
Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary
heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of
compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the
cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the
cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may
contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered
coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee
and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism
associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong
evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several
studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption,
which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial.
SUMMARY: Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to
increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart
disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in
coffee.
 ------------------------------
*2: *Rev Diabet
Stud.2007
Summer;4(2):105-11. Epub 2007 Aug 10.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Long-term, moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower prevalence
of diabetes mellitus among elderly non-tea drinkers from the Mediterranean
Islands (MEDIS Study).*
*Panagiotakos DB*,
*Lionis C*,
*Zeimbekis A*,
*Makri K*,
*Bountziouka V*,
*Economou M*,
*Vlachou I*,
*Micheli M*,
*Tsakountakis N*,
*Metallinos G*,
*Polychronopoulos
E*
.
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association between coffee drinking and the
prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly people from the
Mediterranean islands. METHODS: During 2005-2007, 500 men and 437 women
(aged 65 to 100 years) from the islands of Cyprus (n = 300), Mitilini (n =
=
142), Samothraki (n = 100), Cephalonia (n = 104), Corfu (n = 160) and=
 Crete
(n = 131) participated in the survey. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk
factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and obesity), as
well as behavioral, lifestyle and dietary characteristics were assessed
using face-to-face interviews and standard procedures. Among various
factors, fasting blood glucose was measured and prevalence of type 2
diabetes mellitus was estimated, according to the established American
Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, while all participants were asked about
the frequency of any type of coffee consumption over the last year. RESULTS:
Coffee drinking was reported by 84% of the participants, the majority of
whom drank boiled coffee. The participants reported that they had consumed
coffee for at least 30 years of their life. Data analysis adjusted for
various potential confounders, revealed that, compared to non-consumption,
the multi-adjusted odds ratio for having diabetes was 0.47 (95%, CI 0.32 to
0.69) for 1-2 cups/day, while it was 1.05 (95%, CI 0.70 to 1.55) for >3
cups/day, after adjusting for various potential confounders. The association
of coffee drinking with diabetes was significant only among non-tea
drinkers. Increased coffee intake was not associated with diabetes
prevalence. CONCLUSION: The data presented suggest that moderate coffee
drinking is associated with a lower likelihood of having diabetes, after
adjusting for various potential confounders.
 ------------------------------
*3: *Mol Endocrinol.2007
Jul;21(7):1603-16. Epub 2007 Apr 24.
Related Articles,
Links 
*The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans, cafestol, as an agonist
ligand for the farnesoid and pregnane X receptors.*
*Ricketts ML*,
*Boekschoten MV*,
*Kreeft AJ*,
*Hooiveld GJ*,
*Moen CJ*,
*Müller M*,
*Frants RR*,
*Kasanmoentalib
S*,
*Post SM*,
*Princen HM*,
*Porter JG*,
*Katan MB*,
*Hofker MH*,
*Moore DD*
.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine,
BCM 130, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. mlrick
Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as
Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetière coffee, is the most potent
cholesterol-elevating compound known in the human diet. Several genes
involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets
of cafestol, including cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the
rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. We have examined the
mechanism by which cafestol elevates serum lipid levels. Changes in several
lipid parameters were observed in cafestol-treated APOE3Leiden mice,
including a significant increase in serum triglyceride levels. Microarray
analysis of these mice identified alterations in hepatic expression of genes
involved in lipid metabolism and detoxification, many of which are regulated
by the nuclear hormone receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X
receptor (PXR). Further studies demonstrate that cafestol is an agonist
ligand for FXR and PXR, and that cafestol down-regulates expression of the
bile acid homeostatic genes CYP7A1, sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase, and
Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide in the liver of wild-type but
not FXR null mice. Cafestol did not affect genes known to be up-regulated by
FXR in the liver of wild-type mice, but did increase expression of the
positive FXR-target genes intestinal bile acid-binding protein and
fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) in the intestine. Because FGF15 has
recently been shown to function in an enterohepatic regulatory pathway to
repress liver expression of bile acid homeostatic genes, its direct
induction in the gut may account for indirect effects of cafestol on liver
gene expression. PXR-dependent gene regulation of cytochrome P450 3A11 and
other targets by cafestol was also only seen in the intestine. Using a
double FXR/PXR knockout mouse model, we found that both receptors contribute
to the cafestol-dependent induction of intestinal FGF15 gene expression. In
conclusion, cafestol acts as an agonist ligand for both FXR and PXR, and
this may contribute to its impact on cholesterol homeostasis.
 ------------------------------
*4: *Pharmacol Res.2007
Mar;55(3):187-98. Epub 2007 Jan 26.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Coffee and cardiovascular disease: in vitro, cellular, animal, and human
studies.*
*Bonita JS*,
*Mandarano M*,
*Shuta D*,
*Vinson J*
.
Department of Chemistry, Loyola Hall, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA
18510, USA.
Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This
review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of
coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled
unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has
over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a
physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the
diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most
notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and
their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated
with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial
function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant
activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies,
cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most
definitive evidence, human trials.
 ------------------------------
*5: *Curr Opin Lipidol.2007
Feb;18(1):13-9.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease.*
*Cornelis MC*,
*El-Sohemy A*
.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in
current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine
consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and
genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS:
Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary
heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of
compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the
cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the
cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may
contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered
coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee
and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism
associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong
evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several
studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption,
which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial.
SUMMARY: Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to
increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart
disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in
coffee.
 ------------------------------
*6: *Toxicol Rev.
2006;25(1):55-69.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Boiled or filtered coffee? Effects of coffee and caffeine on cholesterol,
fibrinogen and C-reactive protein.*
*Rodrigues IM*,
*Klein LC*
.
Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant drug in the world that
mostly is consumed in the form of coffee. Whether caffeine and/or coffee
consumption contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD),
the single leading cause of death in the US, is unclear.This article
examines the effects of caffeine intake, both alone and via coffee
consumption, on key blood markers of CVD risk: lipoproteins (cholesterol,
triglycerides), fibrinogen (a biomarker of blood clotting) and C-reactive
protein (CRP; a biomarker of inflammation). These blood markers and their
role in the development of CVD are reviewed first. Studies examining
caffeine and coffee effects on each of these blood markers are then
presented. Next, biobehavioural moderators of the relationship between
caffeine and/or coffee consumption and CVD are discussed, including
genetics, sex and tobacco smoking.The literature indicates a strong
relationship between boiled, unfiltered coffee consumption and elevated
cholesterol levels; however, there is a critical gap in the literature
regarding the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on fibrinogen or
CRP, which is an independent predictor of CVD risk. Available studies are
limited by small samples sizes, inclusion of only men (or few women) and
unrepresented age or ethnic groups. Thiere is a critical need for controlled
laboratory and epidemiological studies that include fibrinogen and CRP
markers of CVD risk before conclusions can be drawn regarding the health
effects of caffeine and/or coffee in a normal, healthy population of men and
women.
 ------------------------------
*7: *Mol Nutr Food
Res.2005
Mar;49(3):274-84.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Coffee consumption and human health--beneficial or detrimental?--Mechanisms
for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for
cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.*
*Ranheim T*,
*Halvorsen B*
.
Department of Medical Genetics, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo,
Norway.
Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide.
Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they
traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water.
Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is
interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its
potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main
health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is
associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due
to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds,
cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration
of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other
ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like
heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on
the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee
intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome.
On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant
activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2
diabetes mellitus.
 ------------------------------
*8: *J Intern Med.2003
Jun;253(6):653-9.
Related Articles,
Links 
*Association of boiled and filtered coffee with incidence of first nonfatal
myocardial infarction: the SHEEP and the VHEEP study.*
*Hammar N*,
*Andersson T*,
*Alfredsson L*,
*Reuterwall C*,
*Nilsson T*,
*Hallqvist J*,
*Knutsson A*,
*Ahlbom A*;
*SHEEP and the VHEEP
study*
.
Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska
institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. niklas.hammar
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of consumption of filtered and boiled
coffee, on the incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction. DESIGN:
Population-based case-control study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The study base
consisted of the population 45-65/70 years-old in two Swedish counties,
Stockholm and Västernorrland, 1992/93-94. In all, 1943 cases of first
nonfatal myocardial infarction were identified. For each case one control
was selected from the study base concurrently with disease incidence by
matching the sex, age and place of residence of the case. Information about
coffee consumption and other factors was obtained by mailed questionnaire
and a medical examination. The participation rate was 85% amongst cases and
74% amongst controls. RESULTS: Men with a reported consumption of 7-9 dL
filtered coffee per day showed an increased incidence of first myocardial
infarction compared with consumers of 3 dL day-1 or less (RR: 1.32; 95% CI:
1.03-1.70). A consumption of at least 10 dL day-1 was associated with an RR
of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.42-2.63) for filtered and 2.20 (95% CI: 1.17-4.15) for
boiled coffee. Amongst women, no clear association was seen between
consumption of filtered coffee and myocardial infarction but consumption of
boiled coffee tended to be related to an increased incidence. Comparing
subjects drinking boiled coffee with those drinking filtered coffee and
adjusting for the amount consumed gave an increased incidence for boiled
coffee amongst both men (RR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.07-1.80) and women (RR: 1.63;
95% CI: 1.04-2.56). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of boiled coffee appears to
increase the incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction. This
increased incidence is consistent with randomized trials showing an adverse
impact of boiled coffee on blood lipids.
 ------------------------------
*9: *Scand J Prim Health
Care.2002
Dec;20(4):213-8.
Related Articles,
Links 
*The Finnmark Intervention Study. Better health for the fishery population
in an Arctic village in North Norway.*
*Lupton BS*,
*Fønnebø V*,
*Søgaard AJ*,
*Langfeldt E*
.
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
beate.lupton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factor changes
after 6 years of intervention in the North Cape community. DESIGN:
Longitudinal cohort study with a quasi-experimental design with one
intervention and three control communities selected from the same coastal
area with a baseline screening (1987), 6-year intervention, and re-screening
(1993). SETTING: Fishing communities on the coast of Finnmark in the
Norwegian Arctic area. PARTICIPANTS: 1685 (70%) of the invited in both
screenings, aged between 20 and 62 years in 1987. INTERVENTION:
Community-intervention based on empowerment and cooperation between
voluntary organisations and local health services. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Change in cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Compared to the control
communities, the main findings in North Cape were among men: 21.3% less
drinking boiled coffee (p < 0.05), 10.5% more drinking low fat milk (p <
0.01), 0.3 mmol/l reduction in cholesterol (p < 0.01) and 0.2 kg/m2
reduction in BMI (p < 0.001). Among women, there were 5.9% fewer smokers (p
< 0.01), 21% less drinking boiled coffee (p < 0.05), 1 kg/m2 less increase
in BMI (p < 0.001) and 0.5 less increase in MI risk score (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Small close-knit communities are suitable for community-based
interventions where it is easier to obtain close interaction between health
service, voluntary organisations and the public at large.
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2) From: Morris Nelson
"Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to
increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart
disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in
coffee."
People get paid lots of money to come to conclusions like this. Definition
of moderate:  going to the bathroom without the cup of coffee?
Morris


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